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Multiple Choices And Essay (Abnormal Psychology)

Abnormal Psychology

Chap 1-7

Each question is worth 1 points. For this test, one can earn up to 35 points. All questions have one and only one correct answer.

1. The current version of the DSM—the DSM-5—is __________, and it contains a total of __________ diagnostic categories.

a. a complete guide to the origin, diagnosis, and treatment of mental disorders; 256

b. a collection of random opinions about diagnosing mental disorders; 323

c. a fundamentally flawed collection of unfounded assumptions about mental disorders; 415

d. a work in progress that classifies mental disorders based on what is currently known; 541

2. Which of the following is a disadvantage to having a classification system for mental disorders?

a. A classification system establishes the types of problems that mental professionals can treat.

b. When labels are used to describe an individual’s behavior, important details about the person are lost.

c. A classification system allows for research to advance.

d. Identifying the disorder that an individual has guides treatment.

3. The most prevalent psychological disorders among adults in the United States are __________, while __________ account(s) for the greatest percentage of the global burden of disease.

a. anxiety disorders; depressive disorders

b. mood disorders; tuberculosis

c. substance abuse disorders; HIV/AIDS

d. dissociative disorders; drug use disorders

4. Why is it inaccurate and poor scientific judgment to make conclusions based on case studies?

a. Case studies can provide little information about a disorder.

b. Few patients are willing to be used as case studies.

c. It is unethical.

d. Conclusions based on so little data are likely to be flawed.

5. What is a good control group for a research study on people with eating disorders?

a. People who have eating disorders and a wide range of educational backgrounds

b. A group that is comparable to the one with eating disorders, except that they eat normally

c. A group that is drawn from the sample of people with eating disorders

d. People who used to have eating disorders but say they no longer do

6. A common treatment for mental illness during the Middle Ages in Europe was administered by a __________ and consisted of __________.

a. priest; prayer, holy water, and the laying on of hands

b. scientist; fresh air and supportive surroundings

c. surgeon; brain surgery and banishment to an asylum for the mentally ill

d. physician; psychoanalytic dream interpretation

7. Which of the following statements describes the original purpose for placing individuals in asylums?

a. to remove troublesome individuals from society who could not care for themselves

b. to protect society from the dangerous nature of the mentally ill

c. to offer humanitarian treatment to those afflicted with mental illnesses

d. to offer scientifically sound approaches to the treatment of mental disorders

8. In the early nineteenth century, psychiatrists were referred to as __________ and held a relatively inconsequential role in the care of the insane and the management of asylums.

a. alienists

b. lunatics

c. soothsayers

d. purgatists

9. Which of the following is recognized as a major biomedical breakthrough in psychopathology because it established the link between mental and physical illnesses?

a. The discovery of the cause of, and later a cure for, general paresis (syphilis of the brain)

b. The discovery of penicillin as a cure for syphilis

c. The development of electroshock therapy for general paresis (syphilis of the brain)

d. The discovery that brain injuries could be associated with mental disorders

10. Free association and dream analysis __________.

a. are techniques typically used with hypnotized subjects

b. provide insight into the workings of the unconscious

c. were developed in the early 1800s

d. have been used extensively in behavioral therapy

11. Why is it important to understand the causes of mental disorders?

a. Effective treatment is not possible without such an understanding.

b. Classification of disorders cannot be done without such information.

c. Such knowledge might make both the prevention and successful treatment of mental disorders possible.

d. Disagreements about the causes of psychopathology have long limited the advancements made in the study of abnormal psychology.

12. In the diathesis-stress model, a stressor is __________.

a. a distal, sufficient cause of a mental disorder

b. a necessary or contributory cause that is distal from the onset of symptoms

c. a necessary or contributory cause that is proximal to the onset of symptoms

d. a biological vulnerability

13. The additive model of the diathesis-stress theory proposes that __________.

a. people with a very high level of a diathesis may need a very large amount of stress to develop the disorder

b. people with a very high level of a diathesis may need only a small amount of stress to develop the disorder

c. someone with no diathesis will never develop the disorder

d. someone with no genes for the disorder will never develop the disorder

14. Which of the following statements about brain dysfunction and psychiatric disorders is correct?

a. Identifiable brain damage is often the cause of psychiatric disorders.

b. Brain damage may decrease the risk of developing a psychiatric condition.

c. Changes in brain function appear to play a role in many psychiatric disorders.

d. Brain development can be altered by experience, always leading to changes in the brain that decrease the risk of developing a psychiatric condition.

15. The genetic influences that determine behavior may never be fully understood due to __________.

a. the ease of research to differentiate between the effects of the environment and the effects of genes

b. the likelihood that most behaviors are determined by the interaction of many genes and the environment

c. the tendency to rely on twin studies in genetic research

d. our significant understanding of how genes impact brain chemistry

16. Children raised in orphanages tend to have __________.

a. more cortical gray matter than children raised by their parents

b. less cortical gray matter than children raised by their parents

c. more friendships than children raised by their parents

d. fewer friendships than children raised by their parents

17. Which of the following statements about neural communication is accurate?

a. All neurotransmitters increase the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will transmit a message.

b. The reason neural messages are transmitted from cell to cell is because they physically touch each other.

c. The part of the neuron that receives messages is called the synapse.

d. Neurotransmitters released into the synapse determine whether messages are sent from one neuron to another.

18. Children from lower SES families __________.

a. are more likely to be resilient adults than those from higher SES families

b. show no signs of ill effects if there is an increase in SES before age five

c. are not affected by SES status unless persistent unemployment is the reason for the economic hardships of the family

d. are less likely to show ill effects of SES status if they possess a high IQ and develop healthy attachments to adults and peers

19. If a diagnosis is made by comparing a subject with a “theoretical ideal” of an illness, which type of classification scheme is being used?

a. Categorical

b. Dimensional

c. Prototypal

d. Evolutionary

20. What is the difference between a stressor and a crisis?

a. There is very little difference between the two concepts.

b. While all crises are stressors, not all stressors are crises.

c. There is a biological response to stress, but not to crisis.

d. A stressor is an unexpected crisis.

21. Which of the following statements about stress is correct?

a. The response an individual will have to a stressor can be easily predicted.

b. Physical factors play a role in determining the severity of stress.

c. Prolonged exposure to the stress hormone cortisol can damage brain cells.

d. Changes in the level of one’s external support system are unrelated to stress reactions.

22. Stress tends to do what to telomeres?

a. Increase their strength

b. Decrease their strength

c. Increase their physical length

d. Decrease their physical length

23. What is the term for the procedure that aims to make a patient more aware of such things as their heart rate, level of muscle tension, and blood pressure?

a. Relaxation

b. Meditation

c. Hypnosis

d. Biofeedback

24. Aria was in a terrible car accident in which several people were killed. A few weeks later, she began to talk about what happened. She told the story to anyone who would listen. This seems to be __________.

a. a way to reduce anxiety and desensitize herself to the experience

b. a maladaptive coping response that will heighten her distress

c. a sign that she is beginning to develop PTSD

d. a sign that she is in the shock stage of disaster syndrome

25. Virtual reality exposure treatment for PTSD has been shown to have __________.

a. no effect on PTSD symptoms

b. a significant effect in increasing PTSD symptoms

c. a significant effect in decreasing PTSD symptoms

d. no scientific basis

26. The main way to tell if someone is having a panic attack, rather than just being in a state of fear, is __________.

a. whether they think about what is happening

b. whether they show physiological changes such as increased heart rate

c. whether they have a subjective belief that something awful is about to happen

d. whether they feel a strong urge to flee

27. Gradual exposure to feared cues is __________.

a. an old treatment for anxiety disorders that is no longer used

b. a common component of treatment for all anxiety disorders

c. likely to make someone with an anxiety disorder worse in the long term

d. a useful treatment for phobias but not for other anxiety disorders

28. Which of the following illustrates how cognitive variables may act to maintain acquired fears?

a. Jane no longer went to the park due to her fear of dogs.

b. Karen would think happy thoughts whenever she drove over a bridge.

c. Ryan’s fear of heights caused him to obsess over how high up he was in a building.

d. Melvin knew that his heart was racing because he was afraid.

29. Individuals with social phobia are likely to __________.

a. be aggressive

b. attribute events in their lives to external factors

c. have been raised in a permissive environment

d. attribute negative life events to internal, global, and stable factors

30. Which of the following is characteristic of the obsessions seen in obsessive-compulsive disorder?

a. The obsessions serve to alleviate the anxiety created by the compulsions.

b. The obsessions are clearly related to a traumatic life event.

c. The obsessions are rarely related to the compulsions exhibited.

d. Individuals with OCD attempt to neutralize the obsessions.

31. Which of the following is a true statement about the recurrence of depressive symptoms?

a. If a recurrence is not experienced within one year of an initial depressive episode, recurrence is highly unlikely.

b. Almost half of all individuals diagnosed with major depression will exhibit a recurrence.

c. Those with depression with psychotic features are less likely to experience a recurrence.

d. Clients are usually asymptomatic between depressive episodes.

32. Aaron Beck’s negative cognitive triad involves feeling negatively about __________.

a. helplessness, hopelessness, and sorrow

b. one’s self, one’s world, and one’s future

c. one’s past, one’s present, and one’s future

d. one’s family, one’s self, and one’s friends

33. Which of the following is a true statement about rumination, according to Nolen-Hoeksema’s ruminative response styles theory?

a. Rumination is a protective factor against depression.

b. People who ruminate a great deal tend to have longer periods of depressive symptoms.

c. Gender differences in depression are explained by ruminative styles.

d. Biological factors have been most clearly linked to the development of rumination in those who do not have a family history of mood disorders.

34. Which of the following might explain why rates of depression are low in China and Japan?

a. Mental illnesses are not stigmatized, thus those who are depressed receive much social support and do not seek treatment.

b. The heavy emphasis on the individual decreases the likelihood of blaming the self for failure.

c. Symptoms of depression tend to be described in terms of physical problems rather than in psychological terms.

d. Both positive and negative emotional extremes are rare in China and Japan.

35. Recent research on relapse among bipolar patients suggests that __________.

a. stressful life events have very little influence

b. personality traits and cognitive styles interact with stress to increase the likelihood of relapse

c. relapse is most likely among those with unrealistically positive attributional styles

d. the more frequently a person has bipolar episodes, the less likely it is that stressful events will be able to induce a relapse

The post Multiple Choices And Essay (Abnormal Psychology) appeared first on Nursing Essays Center.

The post Multiple Choices And Essay (Abnormal Psychology) appeared first on Nursing Essays Center.

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