1. Which of the following statements about research on emotions is true?
The relationship between emotion and cognition is bidirectional.
Emotions are unrelated to either attention or memory.
Older children express their emotions more freely and openly than younger children.
It is almost impossible to control one s own emotional expressions.
1. Depressed mothers
generally use consistent discipline techniques.
engage in emotionally positive, responsive caregiving.
rarely respond favorably to antidepressant medication.
view their children more negatively than independent observers do.
1. Erica has confidence in her own ability to control events in her surroundings. Erica has developed
a sense of self-efficacy.
1. __________ are universal in humans and other primates and have a long evolutionary history of promoting survival.
Separation and stranger anxiety
Feelings of pride and envy
Feelings of guilt and shame
1. In infants, expressions of _______ are less common than expressions of __________.
1. Joshua, who is a friendly baby, begins showing signs of fear at about 8 months whenever an unfamiliar person enters the room. Joshua is exhibiting
1. Which of the following is a self-conscious emotion?
1. Preschoolers are able to
recognize that people can experience more than one emotion at a time.
pick up strategies for regulating emotions by watching adults handle their own feelings.
give coherent explanations of emotions that emphasize internal states.
consider conflicting cues when explaining the emotions of others.
1. When alone, Kajsa abbreviates her emotional expressions, representing them internally. She reserves the full performance of emotional expressions for communicating with others. Kajsa is probably between the ages of
12 and 18 months.
2 and 3 years.
4 and 5 years.
6 and 8 years.
1. Some researchers claim that young babies respond in kind to others emotions through a built-in, automatic process of
1. Preschoolers whose parents _____________ are better able to judge others emotions when later tested.
explicitly teach them about diverse emotions
have trouble regulating their own emotions
discourage sibling disputes
stifle emotional displays
1. Beginning in the preschool years, _________ is an important motivator of altruistic behavior.
1. Between the ages of 1 and 2 years, children
detect emotions by matching the caregiver s feeling tone in face-to-face communication.
begin to engage in social referencing.
begin to appreciate that others emotional reactions may differ from their own.
can reconcile conflicting cues when explaining others emotions.
1. Maurizio is inactive, shows mild, low-key reactions to environmental stimuli, is negative in mood, and adjusts slowly to new experiences. According to Thomas and Chess, Maurizio is a(n) __________ child.
1. In which of Thomas and Chess s dimensions of temperament is the energy level of response, such as laughing, crying, talking, or gross-motor activity, measured?
threshold of responsiveness
intensity of reaction
1. In the first few weeks of life, the _________ of shy children are consistently _________ than those of sociable children.
blood pressure levels; lower
heart rates; higher
cortisol levels; lower
body temperatures; higher
1. Because Alice s inhibited disposition interfered with learning and getting along with others, Alice s mother gently but consistently counteracted Alice s maladaptive style. Alice s mother demonstrates
goodness of fit.
a nonshared environment.
1. In John Bowlby s preattachment phase,
infants respond differently to a familiar caregiver than to a stranger.
babies do not mind being left with an unfamiliar adult.
babies display separation anxiety.
children negotiate with the caregiver, using requests and persuasion to alter their goals.
1. Baby Wesley uses his nanny as a secure base from which to explore. Wesley is in Bowlby s ____________ phase.
1. One-year-old Lamar stays close to his mother, fails to explore, and is distressed when she leaves the room. Upon his mother’s return, Lamar clings to her with angry behavior, crying, and screaming despite her efforts to comfort him. Lamar is demonstrating ________ attachment.
1. Compared with the Strange Situation, the Attachment Q-Sort
is less suitable for preschool children than infants.
fails to capture the complexity of the parent child relationship.
is less time consuming.
taps a wider array of attachment-related behaviors.
1. When considering cultural variations in attachment development, which of the following statements is true?
The secure pattern is the most common attachment quality in all societies studied.
Infants in Israeli kibbutzim frequently show avoidant attachment.
Japanese infants rarely show resistant attachment.
German infants tend to be more securely attached than American babies.
1. Parents with _____________ internal working models talk about their childhood experiences with highly charged emotion, sometimes expressing anger toward their parents.
1. Which of the following statements regarding the Aka hunters and gatherers of Central Africa is true?
Aka fathers rarely pick up, cuddle, or play with their babies.
The bond between Aka husband and wife is unusually cooperative and leads to loving interaction between the father and the children.
Aka fathers spend little time in physical proximity to their babies.
Marital dissatisfaction in the Aka culture is associated with sensitive paternal care.
1. In a large study by the U.S. National Institute of Child Health and Development, part-time maternal employment during the baby s first year was associated with
defiance and aggression.
lower social skills.
insecure attachment in the Strange Situation.
greater maternal sensitivity.