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Discussion: Psychological Perspectives

Week 1 Discussion: Psychological Perspectives 16 26

Required Resources Read/review the following resources for this activity:

Initial Post Instructions After reviewing the case below, choose two perspectives (neuroscience, humanistic, cognitive, psychodynamic or behavioral) to create a short dialogue between two psychologists discussing Sara’s behavior. Feel free to be creative in your dialogue! Define your two chosen perspectives and briefly discuss the differences of each approach. What was one missing in your dialogue from the case that the other helped to explain?

For example, what would a psychodynamic psychologist say about Sara’s behavior versus a cognitive psychologist? Your dialogue might look something like this:

Psychodynamic Psychologist: Sara seems to be exhibiting these behaviors as a result of unconscious thoughts and conflicts she may not be aware of.

Cognitive Psychologist: That could be true! But I think a possible cause of Sara’s anxiety could stem from the way she thinks about the world around her. Her thinking is distorted and we should work to change that.

Psychodynamic Psychologist: Hmm… Sara’s parents did get a divorce when she was in high school, she could have possibly repressed those feelings that are now coming to the surface from her own recent divorce.

Cognitive Psychologist: Yes, but we are still not getting at the root of the way she thinks and processes information. She excessively worries about everything, not just her parent’s divorce and her own.

Case Sara is 35 year-old woman currently struggling with increasing pressure at work and a recent divorce among many other things in her life. At the urging of her friends and family, she sought counseling and was diagnosed with Depression and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Sara has a tendency to worry excessively about her children, money, friends, cat, and just about everything else where other people might not find a reason to worry. At work, she has trouble concentrating and is finding it difficult to perform at her best. Her boss is putting more pressure on her to perform better and meet sales goals for the quarter. In general, Sara feels like she is often on edge, tense, exhausted and is very irritable, which has impacted her everyday life. The amount of stress and anxiety Sara is experiencing in her life is also contributing to her depression. She feels as though she is in a vicious cycle she can’t escape.

When Sara was in middle school, her parents argued a lot and she often heard them talking about divorce. In high school, Sara’s parents finally followed through and divorced, which made Sara feel very alone and not in

Textbook: Chapters 1, 2, 3 Lesson

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control of her own life. She said that she still feels that she is not in control, worries often, and can’t control how she feels, despite her attempts.

Be sure to make connections between your ideas and conclusions and the research, concepts, terms, and theory we are discussing this week.

Follow-Up Post Instructions Respond to at least two peers or one peer and the instructor. Further the dialogue by providing more information and clarification.

Writing Requirements

Grading This activity will be graded using the Discussion Grading Rubric. Please review the following link:

Course Outcomes (CO): 1

Due Date for Initial Post: By 11:59 p.m. MT on Wednesday Due Date for Follow-Up Posts: By 11:59 p.m. MT on Sunday

Minimum of 3 posts (1 initial & 2 follow-up) Minimum of 2 sources cited (assigned readings/online lessons and an outside source) APA format for in-text citations and list of references

Link (webpage): Discussion Guidelines

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/69954)Renee Owens (Instructor) Apr 19, 2020

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You may begin posting in this discussion forum on Monday, May 4th.

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This week, you will read about five major perspectives in modern psychology: Neuroscience, Humanistic, Cognitive, Psychodynamic and Behavioral. Each perspective explains human behavior in a different way, with their own strengths and weaknesses. For example, the cognitive perspective focuses on how people think about and understand the world, but doesn’t take into account the physiological and biological processes of each individual (Feldman, 2018).

Review the case below and create a short dialogue between two psychologists discussing Sara’s behavior. Define your two chosen perspectives and briefly discuss the differences of each approach. What was one missing in your dialogue from the case that the other helped to explain?

Feel free to be creative in your dialogue! Be sure to make connections between your ideas and conclusions and the research, concepts, terms, and theory we are discussing this week.

Case

Sara is 35 year-old woman currently struggling with increasing pressure at work and a recent divorce among many other things in her life. At the urging of her friends and family, she sought counseling and was diagnosed with Depression and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Sara has a tendency to worry excessively about her children, money, friends, cat, and just about everything else where other people might not find a reason to worry. At work, she has trouble concentrating and is finding it difficult to perform at her best. Her boss is putting more pressure on her to perform better and meet sales goals for the quarter. In general, Sara feels like she is often on edge, tense, exhausted and is very irritable, which has impacted her everyday life. The amount of stress and anxiety Sara is experiencing in her life is also contributing to her depression. She feels as though she is in a vicious cycle she can’t escape.

When Sara was in middle school, her parents argued a lot and she often heard them talking about divorce. In high school, Sara’s parents finally followed through and divorced, which made Sara feel very alone and not in control of her own life. She said that she still feels that she is not in control, worries often, and can’t control how she feels, despite her attempts.

*Please be sure to review the discussion guidelines via the link provided above as to make sure you understand how discussions will be graded. Remember to cite all of your sources in APA format (in-text citations and a list of references)*

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*Initial response should be posted by Wednesday, May 6th, 11:59 pm MT and discussion requirements must be met by Sunday, May 10th, by 11:59 pm MT*

References

Feldman, R. S. (2018). Understanding psychology (14th ed.). Dubuque: McGraw-Hill Education.

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/148121)Nicolle Bray (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/148121) Yesterday

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After reviewing the case I choose cognitive and psychodynamic.

Cognitive: Studies how people understand and think about the world. (Feldman 2018, pg. 15)

Psychodynamic: Contends behavior is motivated by their inner conscience. ( Feldman 2018, pg.15)

Psychodynamic: Sara seems to have been suppressing her feelings about her parents’ divorce and it is finally surfacing because of her recent divorce.

Cognitive: That could be a possibility but it seems to me she is having a lot of pressure put on her for work. This could definitely cause her to feel out of control.

Psychodynamic: That is something to think about but if she felt out of control with her parents’ divorce it could be the cause of her anxiety and stress now because her divorce just triggered those suppressed emotions.

Cognitive: True but her divorce is probably putting a strain on her finical status and her boss isn’t helping the situation.

References:

Feldman, R.S (2018). Understanding psychology. (14th ed.)

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/138321)Chioma Anugwom (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/138321) Monday

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After reviewing the case below; i choose cognitive and psychodynamic.

Phychodynamic according to Sigmund Freud (1856 to 1939) he believed that event in our childhood have a

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great influence on our adult lives, shaping our personality.

Cognitive psychologist try to build up cognitive models of information processing that goes on inside people’s minds including perception, attention,language, memory and consciousness.

psychodynamic psychologist versus cognitive psychologist about Sara’s behavior.

Psychodynamic Psychologist: Sara might be having those troubles due to the events in her life while growing up, which she has suppressed for example, the argument and fights between her parents .

Cognitive Psychologist; Maybe it is true, but on the other hand,maybe it is caused by the overwhelming pressure of balancing the workloads in the office and at home.

Psychodynamic Psychologist: That might be true but i feel that she developed the ability of suppress antagonistic and over whelming situations from the time she was growing up and watching her parents situations. Battling up emotions and avoiding problematic situation for a longtime can have adverse overwhelming effects on the psychological state of a person’s mind, resulting in depression, anxiety and irritability.

Cognitive Psychologist: That is perfectly true. I believe that the accumulations of workload, both in the office and at home, triggered the overflow of the emotions that resulted in Sara’s present state of mind.

REFERENCE:

Mc Leod, S. A. (2017). Psychodynamic Approach. Simple Psychology.

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/69954)Renee Owens (Instructor) Monday

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Hi Chioma,

Thank you for your perspective on Sara’s case with your dialogue! What do you think are some of the similarities and/or differences of the cognitive and psychodynamic perspectives?

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/138321)Chioma Anugwom (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/138321) Monday

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Psychodynamic mainly focuses on early childhood behavior while cognitive perspective is somewhat well viewed in focus of examining the mental process of what one does based upon what one has thought of doing. Psychodynamic perspective focuses more on unconscious process while

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cognitive perspective focuses more on mental processes.

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/129318)Amanda Cafiero (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/129318) Monday

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Hello Everyone,

Initial Post Instructions After reviewing the case below, choose two perspectives (neuroscience, humanistic, cognitive, psychodynamic or behavioral) to create a short dialogue between two psychologists discussing Sara’s behavior. Feel free to be creative in your dialogue! Define your two chosen perspectives and briefly discuss the differences of each approach. What was one missing in your dialogue from the case that the other helped to explain?

The two perspectives I chose for this discussion is behavioral and cognitive. Behavioral perspective is shown through external emotion and behaviors which is following or copying a person’s actions. Cognitive perspective is mainly based on people’s logical beliefs trying to be realistic about a situation.

Behavioral Psychologist: Sara seems to be mimicking her parents and seeing it as a normal thing to be confronted with conflict and negativity.

Cognitive Psychologist: It appears due to her recent struggles with her divorce and stresses at work that her tendencies of worry have heightened.

Behavioral Psychologist: Yes, her fears and worry have reached a new high and is struggling to cope with the added pressures of everyday life.

Cognitive Psychologist: Sara has to come to terms with the fact that she cannot control everything in her life, unexpected things happen and she needs to learn how to cope with that.

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Reference:

Feldman, R. S. (2018). Understanding psychology (14th ed.). Retrieved from: https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781260883817/cfi/6/2!/4/2@0:0 (https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781260883817/cfi/6/2!/4/2@0:0)

Stamm, K., Lin, Luona, and Cristidis, P. (2016): Module1. Psychologists At Work: retrieved from https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781260883817/cfi/6/22!/4/406/2@0:45.4 (https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781260883817/cfi/6/22!/4/406/2@0:45.4)

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/69954)Renee Owens (Instructor) Monday

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Hello Amanda,

Thank you for your dialogue between the behavioral and cognitive psychologists! The behavioral perspective suggests that our behavior is a result from our learning and experience. This perspective focuses on our external behaviors that are observable and measurable (Feldman, 2018). On the other hand, the cognitive perspective suggests that our behavior results from mental processes involved in decision making and problem-solving (Feldman, 2018). This perspective would ask questions like, “How do people think about and understand the world around them?”

Psychology’s Modern Perspectives: PSYCHademia

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References

Feldman, R. S. (2018). Understanding psychology (14th ed.). Dubuque: McGraw-Hill Education.

PSYCHademia. (2016, August 9). Psychology’s modern perspectives. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PcKtNYs0lpQ

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/134006)Allyn Raatz (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/134006) Monday

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Hello professor and class,

The two psychological perspectives I chose for Sara’s case are Psychodynamic and Cognitive.

With the cognitive perspective, we learn how people comprehend and represent the outside world within themselves and how our ways of thinking about the world influence our behavior. (Feldman, 2018 pg. 17)

The psychodynamic perspective argues that behavior is motivated by inner forces and conflicts about which we have little awareness or control. (Feldman, 2018 pg. 16)

Cognitive psychologist: I best think that the worry and anxiety that Sara struggles with stems from thinking too much into things. Allowing herself to get swept away in constant worry.

Psychodynamic psychologist: I believe that Sara’s struggles actually stem from things that she has been suppressing throughout her life that have come out over recent years. Her divorce has caused worry over her financials and children. The anxiety that causes her to always be on edge and irritable has stemmed from the psychodynamic of conflicts going on within.

Cognitive psychologist: I best think she will benefit from Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, which entails stripping away the negative connotations of emotions such as sadness and anxiety. (Dowd, Clen, Arnold 2010)

References

Feldman, R. S. (2018). Understanding psychology (14th ed.). Dubuque: McGraw-Hill Education

Dowd, E. T., Clen, S. L., & Arnold, K. D. (2010). The specialty practice of cognitive and behavioral psychology. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/129113)Mariechelle Tormis (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/129113) Monday

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Professor Owens and Class,

As an intro for this class, we had to understand the different perspectives of psychology. To put these into practice, we were challenged to address either neuroscience, humanistic, cognitive, psychodynamic, or behavioral perspectives following Sara’s case. I decided to further detail the neuroscience and behavioral psychological perspectives. According to Mr. McNabb (2020), the neuroscience approach explores the correlation between your mental state and brain, along with nerves and hormones (para. 3). It entails your nervous system and genetic makeup which affect your behavior. The behavioral psychologists specify that your external environment depicts your behavior.

Case

Neuroscience Psychologist: It appears that Sara may be experiencing issues with depression and anxiety due to a hormonal imbalance.

Behavioral Psychologist: While this could be true, it was not mentioned of psychological disorders being heredity in her family, but the alignment of her parent’s divorce could be a reflecting image of her situation.

Neuroscience Psychologist: That is very possible, but in addition, the pressure from work could be raising her stress levels and causing her brain to release chemicals resulting in her psychological issues.

Behavioral Psychologist: There could also be a connection between Sara’s past experience with her parent’s divorce being a learned behavior and her lonely memories during the time. As a young girl in middle school, these traumatizing feelings may be contributing to her worries for her children and how they are currently coping with family problems.

References:

Feldman, R. S. (2018). Understanding psychology (14th ed.). Dubuque: McGraw-Hill Education.

5 Major Perspectives in Psychology. (2020). http://mrmcnabb.weebly.com/5-major-perspectives-in- psychology.html

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/69954)Renee Owens (Instructor) 12:08am

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Edited by Renee Owens (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/69954) on May 6 at 12:08am

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Hi Mariechelle,

Thank you for your great dialogue between the behavioral and neuroscience psychologists! In this instance, do you think that the behavioral psychologist and the psychodynamic psychologist could be in agreement with some aspects of how they would view Sara’s behavior?

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/140201)Kristin DiPasquale (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/140201) 12:23pm

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Hi Mariechelle,

I appreciate how your discussion added some background information on the different psychologist perspectives you used. I think it is important, especially in a class about psychology, to fully understand the terms and ideas we discuss before we try and discuss them. Psychology is such a detailed and intricate field and the ideas and perspectives used in this course are going to aid us in growing knowledge. I think it was important to note in the behavioral psychologist perspective that not only was heredity not mentioned, but also how behaviors are associated with neurons. This would add to the overall dialogue. Great job with this post.

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/134158)Maxwell Agu (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/134158) Monday

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Hi Everyone

On this very assignment, I choose psychodynamic and neuroscience psychological perspective, because they work together to create a dialogue between the neurosciences and psychoanalysis whereby generating an accurate, large-scale model of the mind. From a neuroscientific standpoint, depression and generalized anxiety disorder Sara was going through were driven by unconscious intention due to as result of specific neuron circuit in her brain that are mainly specialized to produce each behavior. However, psychologist focus will be based on looking through the biological perspective whereby Sara extroverted behavior will be elaborated due to genetic makeup from her parent that will as well have effect on the gene of certain neurotransmitters in her brain triggered by the amount of stress and anxiety Sara was experiencing in her life.

Psychodynamic is such a psychologic perspective that focuses mainly on how the past may have affected individual psychological states and psychologist strongly believe that unconscious mind is what actually

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control most of our cognitive and behavior which according to Freud’s psychoanalytical theory of personality , the unconscious mind is a reserve of feeling , thoughts urges and memories that outside of our conscious awareness (Bargh and Morsella, 2008 ). Psychologist will use these perspective to evaluate Sara’s unconscious mind regards to her early child experience and how her past life may have affected her psychological states, knowing that the psychological effect of divorce Sara encountered during when her parents’ divorced may have contributed her depression , anger, and a generalized anxiety disorder that also made her to even lack concentration at certain time. Psychologically, I believe that Sara’s problem today is as result of an ongoing experience she encountered during her childhood which made her vulnerable to feel out of control of her life.

Reference

Bargh, JA & Morsella, E. The unconscious mind. Perspect Psychol Sci.;3(1):73-79. doi: : 10.1111/j.1745- 6916.2008.00064.x

Feldman, R. S. (2018). Understanding psychology (14th ed.). Dubuque: McGraw-Hill Education

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/149059)Deanna Santiago (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/149059) Monday

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After reviewing the case, I chose to focus on the cognitive and behavioral perspectives. Cognitive perspective is the psychological view that focuses on how another thinks, their perception, and problem solving. Behavioral perspective is the focus on behaviors both learned and unlearned.

Cognitive Psychologist: It seems to me that Sara’s anxiety began long ago dealing with her parents divorce and never fully gaining control of her life.

Behavioral Psychologist: Do you think that her divorce is causing a pattern of leftover anxiety/worries and feelings of being lonely just like she felt during her parents divorce.

Cognitive Psychologist: While that can be true, she now has many more things to add to her worries such as her children, home, cat, and job. These added worries, she did not have during her parents divorce.

Behavioral Psychologist: She never dealt with her worries when she was younger, carrying it with her for her whole life, and now cannot handle these extra worries on top of it all so she sees a connection from her parents divorce to her own.

The behavioral psychologist explains the stem of Sara’s worries, anxiety, and depression goes back to her being younger. She had these emotions bottled up since her parents divorce, and her own divorce is bringing these back up again. The cognitive psychologist is focusing on why Sara has these worries now.

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/149582)Regina Ebanks (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/149582) Monday

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Hey everyone!

*There are five major perspectives in psychology. According to Feldman, Robert (2019) the types of perspectives are listed below:

– NEUROSCIENCE ~ views behavior from the perspective of biological functioning.

– COGNITIVE ~ examines how people understand and think about the world.

– BEHAVIORAL ~ focuses on observable behavior.

– HUMANISTIC ~ contends that people can control their behavior and that they try to reach their full potential.

– PSYCHODYNAMIC ~ believes behavior is motivated by inner, unconscious forces over which a person has little control.

Humanistic psychologist: Hey, thanks for joining me to discuss or mutual patient. It’s quite obvious that Sara is losing control over her life. She just needs to develop a life plan/ goal to regain control in her life.

Cognitive psychologist: I concur but I believe we have to focus on why Sara got herself into that depression state of mind first. Why is she always worrying? Why can’t she live in the moment?

Humanistic psychologist: She can’t stop worrying because she feels the need to be in control at all times.

Cognitive psychologist: You’re right but why does she think she has to be in control all the time? Sara thinks her world is falling apart right now, especially because of her recent divorce which is probably enlightening feelings from her parents’ divorce. I believe Sara needs some time to herself to think about all aspects of her life and reevaluate her situation.

The perspectives that I chose are COGNITIVE and HUMANISTIC.

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Reference:

Feldman, R. S. (2019). Understanding psychology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

I think the humanistic psychologist was missing the “WHY” in the case scenario for Sara.

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/129318)Amanda Cafiero (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/129318) 9:34am

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Regina,

I like how you broke down each perspective before you wrote your dialogue. I have never taken a psychology class before so this really helped me understand each perspective easier.

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/145729)Amanda Chappell- Walkwitz (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/145729) Yesterday

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Hello professor and classmates,

I’ve chosen to evaluate Sarah’s situation from a psychodynamic perspective and a Neuroscience perspective. When looking at the situation from a psychodynamic perspective, one needs to understand the way that people internalize things and figure out what unconscious thought is causing the symptoms whereas neurological perspectives would look at the biology behind Sarah’s symptoms. (Feldman, 2019)

Psychodynamic: It seems like Sarah internalized a lot of emotion from her parents divorce when she was younger, perhaps this is why she’s feeling out of control and anxious.

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Neuroscience: Well Sarah is under a lot of stress, stress causes a release of hormones like epinephrine, norepinephrine and cortisol. (Mayo clinic staff, 2019) When these hormones are released they cause a spike in pulse rate, blood pressure and respiration and can really cause extreme exhaustion if one is dealing with this barrage constantly. Medication to inhibit these hormones/neurotransmitters could really be beneficial.

Psychodynamic: While the hormones/neurotransmitters are behind the way her body is responding to stress, fixing the biological issue won’t help Sarah move past what is causing the reaction. Ultimately I feel like Sarah is reliving the feelings of her parents divorce except not only does she feel out of control of her own life, she feels out of control of her children’s lives. She’s ultimately responsible for their emotional well-being right now and likely feels like she’s failing them by repeating the same cycle her parents did.

Neuroscience: You may be right, but in order to bring all of this pain and hurt to the surface to work through it, medication would likely be beneficial. She has lots of emotions to work through along with discovering a new normal for her family. Mediating some of the biological responses to stress in the meantime would decrease the potential for a larger interruption in her life and really help her examine things through a more objective standpoint.

Personally, I feel it’s beneficial to consider medication when working through serious emotional trauma in therapy. Not only will it make trudging through life a little easier, it helps people look at things without as much emotional interference and makes things a little easier to work through. A person doesn’t necessarily need to be medicated for life, especially if they don’t have a biological imbalance, but for a short time while they process things in therapy can helpful.

References:

Feldman, R. (2019). Understanding psychology (14th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill education. Mayo clinic staff. (2019, March 19). Chronic stress puts your health at risk. Retrieved May 5, 2020, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/stress-management/in-depth/stress/art-20046037

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/129113)Mariechelle Tormis (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/129113) Yesterday

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Amanda,

I applaud you for the amount of detail and effort you put into your discussion post. This past session, I completed the Anatomy and Physiology II course. We covered the Endocrine system and the hormones within it. With the neuroscience perspective being involved with biological factors, I like how you mentioned the exact hormones that release from the brain that could be involved with Sara’s troubles. The dialogue between your psychodynamic and neuroscience physiologists are very much on point. Wonderful job on your first initial post this week!

– Shelley Tormis

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/69954)Renee Owens (Instructor) Yesterday

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*Please respond to initial discussion questions first, before answering the following*

Introspection

Wilhelm Wundt founded the first formal psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany, in 1879, the date now considered to be the beginning of the science of psychology. A physician and physiologist, Wundt conducted experiments intended to identify the basic nature of human consciousness and experience. His main focus of research was on the senses of vision, touch, and the passage of time; other topics studied in his laboratory included attention, emotion, and memory.

The approach associated with Wundt is structuralism, which seeks to describe the basic building blocks or “structure” of consciousness. The main technique used by Wundt and his colleagues was introspection or “inner sense.” In this method, trained subjects are given a stimulus. They then are asked to describe the sensations that made up their conscious experience of that stimulus. In Wundt’s laboratory, you might be asked to reflect on your experience of this stimulus for several minutes or even several hours!

*Excerpt from Feldman (2018)*

Now you can try introspection yourself. Look at the stimulus below:

What is your experience of this apple? How would you describe the sensations of each of the parts of the apple—its colors, its roundness, its shading?

What are some of the criticisms of introspection?

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References

Feldman, R. S. (2018). Understanding psychology (14th ed.). Dubuque: McGraw-Hill Education.

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/145729)Amanda Chappell- Walkwitz (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/145729) 12:56pm

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Hello Dr. Owens,

My experience of this apple are that it is fulfilling, juicy, smooth, enticing, cool, and refreshing. I feel that the apple represents prolonged life, prosperity and even fertility slightly? I feel like maybe it’s voluptuous shape and appearance in spring would represent new life to me.

One of the criticisms of introspection is the fact that we can’t get past our inherent biases. (2016) Even when we are aware of some biases, many are undetected in the subconscious mind. Everyone has different biases, so this makes introspection a very subjective experience and results in unreliable inferences.

Reference:

The Failures of Introspection. (2016, July 27). Retrieved May 6, 2020, from http://livingmeanings.com/failures-introspection-stumbling-block-self-knowledge/

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/141373)Ganna Shvets (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/141373) Yesterday

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Hello, professor Owens and classmates,

I decided to go with the neuroscience and psychodynamic perspectives for my post this week. The neuroscience perspective considers how our biological content influences our behavior. It examines the influence of our nerve cells and our inheritance of certain characteristics from our parents. It includes heredity, evolution, as well as behavioral neuroscience (Feldman, 2018, p. 15). The psychodynamic perspective, originated by Sigmund Freud, is a beginning and the end of psychology (Feldman, 2018, p. 16). This perspective views unconscious factors to be the determinants of a person’s behavior. The two perspectives are similar in their position on the key psychological issues (Feldman, 2018, p. 20).

The dialogue between psychodynamic and neuroscience psychologists:

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Psychodynamic psychologist: Sara is most likely influenced by her unconscious behaviors that now manifest in her present behaviors.

Neuroscience psychologist: You are correct! I believe there are deeper issues than meets the eye. I would love to look into the cellular level of the problem and see if we can find answers there.

Psychodynamic psychologist: Sara had family problems during her middle school, and through high school years, her parents eventually got divorced. I do believe such a lengthy chain of adverse family events had its influence on her sense of self. It seems those events left a lasting footprint and perhaps the past situation with her parents she could not escape from influences her perception of her present.

Neuroscience psychologist: Agreed! Due to the brain’s neuroplasticity, Sara may have formed neural pathways that promoted her unhealthy behaviors and reactions, which escalated into depression and anxiety.

Psychodynamic psychologist: With the help of a supportive therapist, Sara may be able to explore oneself and raise her self-awareness, which in turn would allow her to understand the influences of her past on her present behavior. She would have benefited from therapy sessions during her adolescent years. However, it is never too late, Sara needs to create a better relationship with oneself, which would allow her to find her place again at work and with her family and friends (Lovgren, et al., 2019).

Neuroscience psychologist: Absolutely! She needs to clarify her understanding of her emotions. Investing in her brain health through diet, exercise, as well as supplements has proven to be beneficial in similar situations. Those simple yet effective ways can help her a whole lot, serotonin, for example, can help in mitigating depression. We could examine her brain processes through brain imaging. Also, meditation can be another helpful resource for Sara.

References

Feldman, R. S. (2018). Understanding psychology (14th ed.). Dubuque: McGraw-Hill Education.

Lovgren, A., Rossberg, J.I., Nilsen, L., Engebretsen, E., Ulberg, R. (2019). How do adolescents with depression experience improvement in psychodynamic psychotherapy? A qualitative study. BMC Psychiatry, 19(1), 95. doi: 10.1186/s12888-019-2080-0

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/140201)Kristin DiPasquale (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/140201) Yesterday

!

Hello class,

As our lesson and textbook readings this week explain, psychology is a field of study where different viewpoints and approaches are explored and appreciated. It is a field of study were different viewpoints and processes are used in conjunction with one another to fully understand behavioral and mental processes.

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Neuroscience, humanistic, cognitive, psychodynamic, and behavioral perspectives are some examples of different psychological perspectives. According to the text, neuroscience “views behavior from the perspective of biological functioning”, behavioral “focuses on observable behavior”, cognitive “examines how people understand and think about the world”, humanistic “contends that people can control their behavior and that they naturally try to reach their full potential, and psychodynamic “believes behavior is motivated by inner unconscious forces over which a person has little control”(Feldman, 2018, p.3).

For this discussion I have chosen to elaborate on the two psychological perspectives of neuroscience and humanistic. These two approaches differ from one another in that a neuroscience perspective specifically breaks down the human body in how they function biologically to explain a certain behavior. Humanistic perspectives largely reject that human behavior is based off biology alone and it argues that humans are in complete control of their lives. Interestingly enough, humanistic approaches to psychology are often used in education and teaching styles as it is an approach most likely to engage students and encourage academic growth (Javadi & Tahmasbi, 2020). Based off these specific differences in approach I have created the following dialogue:

Neuroscience psychologist: What Sarah is feeling like she is going through is due to her inherit biological human components. Her behaviors are a result of what she is biologically made of.

Humanistic psychologist: While biological factors do play a role in Sarah’s behaviors and feelings, she is acting on more then just biologically components. Sarah is naturally programmed to want to succeed so when she is feeling as though she is failing it impacts her negatively.

Neuroscience psychologist: But at her core she is hereditary impacted by her parents and if they were unable to work out their problems in a healthy way, Sarah may not be able to as well.

Humanistic psychologist: If Sara is struggling to cope with her problems and she feels on edge and is irritable, this is not merely genetics but an attribute of trying to change things that are out of her control.

References

Feldman, R. S. (2018). Understanding psychology (14th ed.). Dubuque: McGraw-Hill Education.

Javadi, Y., & Tahmasbi, M. (2020). Application of humanism teaching theory and humanistic approach to education in course-books. Theory & Practice in Language Studies. Vol. 10 Issue 1, p. 40-48.

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/131498)Holly Wolf (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/131498) Yesterday

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Hello all!

This week I chose cognitive and behavioral

According to Feldman, Robert cognitive people ~ examine how people understand and think about the

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world. Whereas behavioral ~ focuses on observable behavior

Cognitive: “Sara seems to be displaying these behaviors as a way of letting what others think about her get to her.”

Behavioral: ” Perhaps she is acting this way due to what she saw growing up and is now repeating what she experienced in the past?”

Cognitive: ” I believe the divorce is affecting her emotionally and her boss is causing extra stress.”

Reference

Feldman, R. S. (2018). Understanding psychology (14th ed.). Retrieved from: https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781260883817/cfi/6/2!/4/2@0:0 (https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781260883817/cfi/6/2!/4/2@0:0)

(https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781260883817/cfi/6/22!/4/406/2@0:45.4)

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/69954)Renee Owens (Instructor) 12:04am

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!

Hi Holly,

Thank you for the dialogue between the cognitive and behavioral psychologists! What might the cognitive perspective be able to explain about Sara’s behavior that the behavioral perspective might not be able to as well or vice versa?

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/135846)Sukhleen Dhillon (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/135846) 12:33am

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The five perspectives (neuroscience, cognitive, behavioral, humanistic, psychodynamic) emphasize the different aspects of behavioral and mental processes, and each takes our understanding of behavior in a somewhat different direction (Feldman, 2018 pp. 16).

The neuroscience perspective implies the methodology that sees conduct from the viewpoint of the mind, the sensory system, and other natural capacities.

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The behavioral perspective is based on the point of view that centers around learned practices.

The psychodynamic perspective is a way to deal with brain science that reviews the mental powers fundamental human conduct, sentiments, and feelings, and how they may identify with youth experience.

The cognitive perspective focuses on how people think, understand, and know about the world (Feldman, 2018 pp. 17). It looks at inside mental procedures, for example, critical thinking, memory, and language.

The humanistic perspective is a comprehensive way to deal with human presence through examinations of ideas, for example, which means, values, opportunity, disaster, moral duty, human potential, otherworldliness, and self-completion.

After viewing the case above, I chose the psychodynamic and cognitive perspective to work with.

Psychodynamic Psychologist: Sara may be experiencing those difficulties because of the occasions throughout her life while growing up and her separation has caused stress over her financials and children.

Cognitive Psychologist: This might be true but the cause of her current situation could also be work pressure and trying to balance between home and work life.

Psychodynamic Psychologist: I agree! But I think that because she has been combating these feelings and keeping away from upsetting conditions for an extensive stretch of time which could have had an unfavorable overpowering impact on her mental perspective which explains her difficulty concentration, depression, tension, and worrying behavior.

Cognitive Psychologist: That makes more sense. But despite all this, she does need to learn how to cope with all these situations so that she can gain control over her life and her surroundings.

~Leen

Lumen Learning. (n.d.). Psychological Perspectives | Introduction to Psychology. Retrieved May 5, 2020, from https://courses.lumenlearning.com/intropsychmaster/chapter/psychological-perspectives/

Feldman, R. S. (2018). Understanding psychology (14th ed.). Dubuque: McGraw-Hill Education.

I think the psychodynamic psychologist was lacking to consider the effects of her present environment on her situation.

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/118078)Anakari Martinez (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/118078) 12:53am

!

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Hello Professor and class,

After reading the case I decided to chose cognitive and behavioral perspective. Cognitive perspective focuses on how people think, understand, and know about the world (Feldman, 2019). Behavioral perspective focuses on how behaviors are learned and reinforced (Cherry, 2019).

Cognitive Psychologist: Sara’s understanding of the world seems to be affected by how she worries just about everything and feels as if she is in a vicious cycle she cannot escape. This view of the world might have caused her to develop Depression and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Not to mention, her going through a recent divorce could play a major role in developing depression.

Behavioral Psychologist: Yes, Dr. Martinez, Sara’s understanding of the world can be a contributing factor to how she reacts to things. For example, she is not able to concentrate at work and is also finding it difficult to be able to perform at her best. Because she worries just about everything, this can cause her to not be able to perform at her best or concentrate at work.

Cognitive Psychologist: Excuse me Dr. Trujillo, I must agree with you and because she has other things to worry about, for example her children, money, friends, her cat, and work, this is causing her to have Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Depression and Generalized Anxiety Disorder can co-occur, meaning they can occur together or simultaneously, (Hurley 2018) thus these two diagnoses can have a major impact in her life.

Behavioral Psychologist: Yes Dr. Martinez, I do agree with you, I also wanted to share with you that because she often heard her parents argued and would hear them talk about a divorce when she was in middle school and her parents finally divorced when she was in high school, this could be a contributing factor to her getting a divorced. She might feel as if she needed to go through the same thing just as her parents did. This is because she heard them have this same conversation growing up.

Both, Dr. Martinez and Dr. Trujillo have concluded for Sara to start Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, this type of therapy focuses on taking specific steps to manage and reduce symptoms (Hurley, 2018). They have also decided for Sara to start Problem solving therapy to help her learn tools to effectively manage the negative effects of stressful life events (Hurley, 2018), for example her divorce.

Thank you

Reference

Cherry, K. (2019, November 27). Perspectives in Modern Psychology. Verywellmind. Retrieved from

https://www.verywellmind.com/perspectives-in-modern-psychology-2795595 (https://www.verywellmind.com/perspectives-in-modern-psychology-2795595)

Feldman, R. (2019). Understanding Psychology. (14 edition). New York, NY. McGraw-Hill Education.

Hurley, K. (2018, February 13). Depression and Anxiety. PSYCOM. Retrieved from

https://www.psycom.net/depression.central.anxiety.html (https://www.psycom.net/depression.central.anxiety.html)

th

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/136348)Krista Tad-Y (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/136348) 11:46am

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hello Professor O and Class,

In this Case Analysis, I chose a combination of Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy. As defined by Martin (2019) Cognitive behavioral therapy was invented by a psychiatrist, Aaron Beck, in the 1960s. He was doing psychoanalysis at the time and observed that during his analytical sessions, his patients tended to have an internal dialogue going on in their minds — almost as if they were talking to themselves. But they would only report a fraction of this kind of thinking to him.

I believe this is the most beneficial treatment for Sara since she was exposed to stress since childhood. In addition, CBT focuses on present circumstance and emotions in real time, as opposed to childhood (http://www.psychologytoday.com/ca/basics/child-development) events. A clinician who practices CBT will likely as about family history to get a better sense of the entire person. (https://psychcentral.com/lib/in-depth- cognitive-behavioral-therapy/) Adding behavioral therapy for the case of Sara, it is believed to has successfully been used to treat a large number of conditions. It’s considered to be extremely effective in treating general stress and anxiety.

Psychologist 1: (knocks on the door) (opens the door) Hello, Dr. Bieber! Are you busy?

Psychologist 2: Hi, Dr. Gomez. Come in! Not quite. I just finished a session with my patient. Can I help you?

P1: Yes. I would like to ask for recommendations regarding Sara’s Case. Since she was also your patient before you went on leave.

P2: Oh! Right. I remember her. I’m glad you attended to her treatment while I was away. How is she?

P1: I saw your diagnosis and notes. I would agree on the Depression and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. She sought counseling on our first day. I found that she has a tendency to worry excessively about her children, money, friends, cat, and just about everything else where other people might not find a reason to worry. She is quite a worrier.

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P2: It sounds like it. But, before that she mentioned her work performance which I wrote. She expounded that at work, she has trouble concentrating and is finding it difficult to perform at her best. This could be an anxiety and stress symptom.

P1: Indeed. She mentioned she is often on edge, tense, exhausted and is very irritable, which has impacted her everyday life. I notice she was sometimes biting her nails while she was talking to me. She keeps gripping her hands and cannot sit still.

P2: Those are signs and symptoms of tense.

P1: For her treatment, I am planning to give her the Cognitive therapy. This acts to help the person understand that this is what’s going on. It will help her to step outside her automatic thoughts and test them out. (Martin, 2019)

P2: That is perfect for her case. But, you can add Behavioral Therapy, also. Combine the two as she is anxious and depressed.

P1: (takes notes) Oh, Definitely. She also opened up about her childhood experience regarding her parents’ arguments and her loneliness when they divorced. Which could be an indication of her depression as well now that she is in the same situation.

P2: Good thing she told you that. I guess that’s what I missed after I endorsed her to you.

P1: Yeah. We can use Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) a short-term, goal-oriented psychotherapy treatment that takes a hands-on, practical approach to problem-solving. Its goal is to change patterns of thinking or behavior that are behind people’s difficulties, and so change the way they feel. It is used to help treat a wide range of issues in a person’s life, from sleeping difficulties or relationship problems, to drug and alcohol abuse or anxiety (https://psychcentral.com/anxiety/) and depression (https://psychcentral.com/depression/) . (Martin, 2019)

P2: Okay. You can note that. Now, what would be the expected results after her treatment?

P1: After her treatment, we are expecting an optimistic, stronger and motivated version of Sara. CBT works by changing people’s attitudes and their behavior by focusing on the thoughts, images, beliefs and attitudes that are held (a person’s cognitive processes) and how these processes relate to the way a person behaves,

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as a way of dealing with emotional problems. (https://psychcentral.com/lib/in-depth-cognitive-behavioral- therapy/)

P2: Great! I’m looking forward to that.

P1: Thank you for your insights, Dr. Bieber. It’s an honor to be guided by a well-experienced Psychologist given I’m still a newbie.

P2: You’re welcome. I can see my protégé and a bright future ahead of you when I retire.

(shakes hands)

Reference:

Martin, B. (2019, June 19). In-Depth: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Retrieved May 6, 2020, from https://psychcentral.com/lib/in-depth-cognitive-behavioral-therapy/

Stay Safe!

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