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A problem with stereotypes is that they may often lead to ageism. Ageism is

Authors:

Paul W. Foos; M. Cherie Clark

PSY530

Psychology of AgingText: Human Aging2nd. edition, 2008 ISBN-13: 9780205544011Publisher:Pearson Ed ucation, I nc.l.Psychology of AgingMultiple Choice Quest i o n (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)m. Which is NOT listed in your text as a way to reduce negative attitudes towards aging with the elderly?n. improving portrayals of older peopleo. volunteering at a nursing homep. education about agingq. increasing positive experiences with the elderly2. Quantitative analyses of TV shows have found thata. older adults are portrayed negativelyb. older women are especially underrepresentedc. older adults fare best during prime timed. older adults fare worst in commercials3. Ana lyses of stereotypes of older ad u Its in pri nt med ia have fou nd that one of the most frequent negative portrayals is that ofa. extreme disabilityb. wisdom and generosityc. being unable to remember where they ared. sexual dysfunction4. A problem with stereotypes is that they may often lead to ageism. Ageism isa. jealousy Of older adultsb. prejudice against older adultsc. false beliefs about older adultsd. blaming of older adults5. The study of aging and old adults is known asa. Gerontologyb. Geriatricsc. Geropsychologyd. Geriagology6. People who live to be 100 or older are referred to asa. Hundredairresb. Centenariansc. Oldstersd. Very Oldsters1r.Psychology of Aging27. The ethical standards of the APA say that research cannot be conducted un- less the partie i pantsa. have their confidentiality protectedb. grant their informed consentc. be made aware of any potential risksd. all of the above8. A good synonym for the word “cohort” wou Id bea. ethnic groupb. agec. generationd. gender9. Three important variables are tied together in developmental research. Which of the following is not one of these three?a. ageb. cohortc. genderd. time of measurement10. A researcher finds that age is negatively correlated with alcohol consumption.This means that older adultsa. drink more than younger adultsb. drink less than younger adultsc. drink about the same as young adults and experience the same negative effectsd. are more likely than you ng ad u Its to experience the negative effects of alcohol consumption11. A researcher finds that today’s 70 year olds are less concerned about pollu- tion than today’s 30 year olds. This difference could be due to the __ of the participants.a. ageb. cohortc. either or both of the aboved. on Iy age or cohort but not bothPsychology of Aging12. A researcher who is interested in the relationship between two variables is most likely to use which of the following approaches?a. quasi-experimentalb. longitudinalc. cross-sequentiald. correlational13. Men and women are very different in the aging of their __ systems.a. respiratoryb. Immunec. nervousd. reproductive14. Older adults are frequently advised to increase the amount of __ that they use.a. calciumb. Vitamin B12c. skin lotiond. all of the above15. The changes that occur in the immune system for older adults seem to be due to thea. shrinkage of the thymus glandb. increase in autoimmune diseasesc. loss of T and B cellsd. loss of natural killer cells16. Which of the following is an example of an autoimmune disease?a. osteoporosisb. hypertensionc. rheumatoid arthritisd. varicose veins17. An exercise that appears to boost the functioning of the immune system isa. Tai chib. aerobic, especially swimmingc. weight liftingd. brisk walking3s.Psychology of Aging418. Loss of cells in this area of the brain often results in a loss of smell.a. olfactory bulbb. frontal lobec. temporal lobed. none of the above19. The most frequent chronic condition for older adults isa. hypertensionb. arthritisc. diabetesd. varicose vei ns20. Findings that show good health to be associated with positive attitude offer support for __ views of development.a. hereditaryb. continuousc. organismicd. mechanistic21. Mice given anti-oxidants with their food can live 30 longer than mice given a normal diet. Such resultsa. are excellent support for free radical theoryb. are cirncutt to Interpret because the long lived mice also eat lessc. provide good evidence for garbage accumulation theories of senescenced. argue against garbage accumulation theories of senescence22. Which of the following is not an antioxidant?a. Vitamin Bb. Vitamin Cc. Vitamin Ed. Beta-carotene23. Which of the following hormones has been found to increase muscle mass when given to older men but also led to swollen ankles and stiff joints?a. melatoninb. telomerasec. DHEAd. Human growth hormonePsychology of Aging24. Which of the following hormones is a regulator of biological rhythms?a. melatoninb. telomerasec. DHEAd. Human growth hormone25. Which concept borrowed from physics, seems to offer support for wear and tear theory, accord i ng to early views?a. interactionb. entropyc. inertiad. none of the above26. DNA damage/repair theory claims that senescence is due to cells reading less of the DNA strand as they grow older. This is thought to occur becausea. the DNA strand has been damaged by environmental factorsb. DNA repair units may grow more efficient with agec. Older cells can not easily decode DNA strandsd. Old cells read only about 30 of a DNA strand27. DNA damage might be caused bya. the actions of free radicalsb. sunlightC. pollutants in the air d. all of the above28. Some research has found an association between shorter telomere strands anda. lack of exerciseb. high levels of stressc. excess alcohol intaked. obesity29. NEAT seems to be one way to maintain a normal BMI. NEAT refers to activi- ties likea. fidgetingb. eating neat foodsc. aerobicsd. lifting weights5t.Psychology of Aging30. Frequently feeling exhausted, having a low level of physical activity, walking slowly, and having very little strength are indicators ofa. low BMIb. frailty. .c. Insomniad. old age31. Which of the following is not a good aerobic exercise for older adults?a. swimmingb. brisk walksc. weight liftingd. bicycle riding32. One of the most important things that people can do to increase their health and longevity is something that less than half actually do on a regular basis and that is toa. take vitamin supplementsb. exercisec. wear seat beltsd. have regular physical examinations33. Older adults say that a reason they do not exercise is thata. it makes them feel self-consciousb. they cannot find the timec. it is not very interestingd. all of the above34. One of the easiest ways to begin an exercise regimen is to begin or increaseyoura. walkingb. protein intakec. stretchingd. jogging35. The type of taste bud that usually shows the greatest loss in older adults is the __ type.a.sourb.saltyc.sweetd.bitter6Psychology of Aging36. The loss of nerve cells under the skin frequently produces a decline in sensi- tivity to which of the following for older adults?a. touchb. painc. lightd. sound37. Older adults with extensive cell loss in their vestibular system are likely to have difficultya. tasting certain foodsb. detecting subtle aromasc. maintaining their balanced. all of the above38. One of the more effective treatments for restoring a good sense of balance and reducing fears of falling for older adults isa. the scooterb. better lightingc. Tai chid. aerobic exercise39. In which of the following reaction time situations is the difference between old and young responders the smallest?a. simpleb. choicec. complexd. multiplex40. Comparisons of age differences in simple and choice reaction time situations show that the slowing down with advanced age is primarily ina. the sensing of presented stimulib. the central processing of informationc. the motor muscle responsesd. all are equally involved7u.Psychology of Aging84l. The relationship between older adults’ complaints about memory and their actual performance on memory tests appears to be41. The relationship between older adults complaints about memory and their actual performance on memory test appears to be.a. they are right to complainb. the do better than they expectedc. nonexistentd. unknown42. Some research has found that older adults who complain about their memo- riesa. may be detecting changes that outsiders cannot yet observeb. may be trying to attract attention from friends and familyc. also perform very poorly on objective tests of memoryd. are generally from cultures where aging is not respected43. Negative stereotypes about aging and memory seem to influence older adults’a. performance on tests of memoryb. beliefs about their own memoryc. perception of the test giverd. none of the above44. refers to knowledge about one’s own memory.a. Proced u ra I memoryb. Prospective memoryc. Selective memoryd. Metamemory45. The best way to reduce complaints about memory and to improve perfor- mance on memory tests seems to bea. to expose older adults to a variety of memory improvement techniques and allow them to decide which one(s) to useb. to teach older adults about memory changes that typically occur with advanced agec. to do what can be done to relieve the anxiety of older adults who are worried about their memoriesd. all of the abovePsychology of Aging46. One pharmacological aid that shows promise for improving memory, particu- larly for those with serious memory problems, isa. acetylcholineb. Vitamins C and Ec. Gingko bilobad. Beta-carotene47. Which chemical has been shown to play an important role in the formation of new memories while we sleep but does not seem to improve memory when taken as a supplement?a. acetylcholineb. adrenalinc. dopamined. seroton i n48. A high level of intelligence in a very specific area is calleda. fluid intelligenceb. crystallized intelligencec. expertised. wisdom49. Which of the following statements is true about expertise?a. younger experts are not really as “expert” as older expertsb. older experts experience deficits but have found sophisticated strategies to continue performing at a high levelc. experts have optimized their performance and therefore their ‘expert’ perfor- mance, does not decline with aged. all of the above50. Wisdom is defined asa. very high intelligenceb. extensive knowledge of strategiesc. expertise at lifed. an extreme willingness to give advice9v.Psychology of Aging105l. Wh ich of the followi ng is thought to be necessary for the development of wisdom?a. having enough experienceb. having the right kind of experiencesc. having the right kind of personalityd. having all of the above52. A person who takes account of the fact that people behave differently in dif- ferent cultures would be said to have which aspect of wisdom?a. Knowledge of proceduresb. factual knowledgec. life-span contextual ismd. tolerance for uncertainty53. Which of the following persons is likely to score highest on a test of wisdom?a. a young accountantb. an old accountantc. a young psychiatristd. an old psychiatrist54. When tested on their wisdom, persons nominated as being wise by other people generallya. score quite lowb. show a very different kind of wisdomc. score fairly highd. reveal a tendency to exaggerate55. Generativity refers toa. the ki nd of work that a person doesb. whether one works for the advancement of younger peoplec. the feelings that one has about helping future generationsd. the likelihood of success in producing a usable productw.Psychology of Aging56. Erikson suggested that people who do not achieve generativity, experiencea. isolationb. stagnationc. role confusiond. despair57. The text suggests that people who do not experience generativity may be those who experience a(n)a. mid-life crisisb. retrogenesisc. change of identityd. enlightenment58. One proposed expansion of Erikson’s last stage includes the concern ofa. persistent agreeableness vs. rampant antagonismb. flexibility vs. rigidityc. social independence vs. social dependenced. body transcendence vs. body preoccupation59. Androgyny means that an individual hasa. a high level of masculine characteristicsb. a high level of feminine characteristicsc. both of the aboved. none of the above60. Changes in gender roles with age do not seem to be related toa. cultureb. parenthoodc. cohortd. gender61. Looking at all settings where elder abuse might occur, estimates suggest that only about 1 in _ cases is actually reported.a. 2b. 3c. 5d. 1011x.Psychology of Aging62. Elder abuse is far more likely whena. the wife has a lower level of education than the husbandb. abuse has occurred in the past and by the same personc. family income is above average but bills have not been paidd. all of the above63. The most frequent perpetrators of elder abuse and neglect are the elder adult’sa. childrenb. spousec. husbandd. parents64. It is estimated that about __ persons aged 51 and older are currently cohabiting.a. 100,000b. a half millionc. 1 milliond. 2 million65. Older adults tend to view cohabitation asa. an alternative to marriageb. a first step toward marriagec. a way to test compatibilityd. a sinful state of affairs66. The divorce rate is higher for people whoa. are less religiousb. are lower incomec. marry youngd. all of the above67. As working people get closer to retirement they are more likely toa. be absent from workb. do some informal planningc. seek out formal retirement planning programsd. become very nervous and need counseling12Psychology of Aging68. People with which of the following characteristics are more likely to work well beyond the average age of retirement?a. those in very good healthb. people who like their work and are dedicated to their careersc. workers with relatively low incomed. all of the above69. Following retirement, most adultsa. move to another nearby cityb. move to retirement communitiesc. move to Florida or Arizonad. do not move70. People with positive attitudes about their upcoming retirement generally havea. higher incomeb. voluntary retirementc. better healthd. all of the above71. Which of the following persons is likely to have the greatest financial diffi- culty supporting themselves after retirement?a. race does not matter in financial matters of retirementb. a white manc. a white womand. a black woman72. Middle-aged adults who are caring for children and an ailing parent seem to have their stress reduced by time spent in the work place when the parent has which of the following ailments?a. severe memory lossb. diabetesc. incontinenced. loss of hearing and/or sight13y.Psychology of Aging73. Both men and women show the highest levels of retirement at agesa. 50 and 60b. 62 and 65c. 65 and 70d. men and women retire at different ages74. One difference between depression and dementia is that depressiona. has a very slow onsetb. produces a fluctuating moodc. can be successfu Ily treatedd. leads the person to hide their disorder75. “Mad Cow” disease is a form of which of the following dementias?a. Pick’s diseaseb. Korsakoff’s syndromec. Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseased. Alzheimer’s disease76. Which of the following is known to be caused by a gene?a. Alzheimer’sb. Pick’sc. Creutzfeldt-Jakobd. Korsakoff’s77. Which of the following is known to be caused by a virus?a. Parkinson’s diseaseb. Vascular dementiac. NeuroAIDSd. Huntington’s disease78. Which neurotransmitter is affected in Parkinson’s disease?a. acetylcholineb. dopaminec. serotonind. SERTA14Psychology of Aging79. Which neurotransmitter is affected in Alzheimer’s disease?a. acetylchol i neb. dopaminec. serotonind. GABA80. Which dementia is caused by a series of continuing and small strokes?a. Huntington’sb. Alzheimer’sc. Parkinson’sd. Vascular81. One unfortunate aspect of institutional care for older adults is that the people who work there often rei nforcea. dependent behaviorsb. independent behaviorsc. incorrect behaviorsd. rude behaviors82. The major drawback to community based programs for older adults isa. staffing them with good peopleb. paying for themc. building enough community centersd. getting people to enroll in them83. Designing products and environments to fit the capabilities of the people whowi II use them is referred to as design.a. environmentalb. human factorsc. ergonomicd. congruent84. A good example of a structural improvement to increase physical congruence in an older adult’s home would be toa. raise the height of kitchen shelves to increase storage capacityb. replace door knobs with lever handlesc. lower illumination levels in the kitchen to prevent glared. all of the above are good examples15z.Psychology of Aging85. People with which of the following forms of control are least likely to have accessibility problems where they live?a. internalb. primaryc. accommodatived. external86. Which of the following is not a good predictor of older adult’s use of assistive devices?a. medications the person is takingb. whether they live alone or with othersc. how close they are to public transportationd. the severity of their physical disability87. The environmental design that brings pets and plants to nursing homes and young people and children as regular visitors is referred to asa. the Eden Alternativeb. Gerontechnologyc. an IADLd. ergonomic congruence88. Most people enrolled in hospice area. oldb. dying of cancerc. terminally illd. all of the above89. The term bereavement meansa. survivalb. sorrowc. deathd. worry90. The culture in which one lives is the main determiner of the correct way toa. mournb. grievec. be bereavedd. be depressed16aa.Psychology of Aging91. The most expensive part of a funeral is usually the cost of thea. professional services including embalmingb. hairdresser, cosmetics, and clothesc. use of the funeral parlor and attendantsd. casket and outer container92. An advantage of cremation over more traditional funeral and burial proce- dures is that cremationa. is relatively inexpensiveb. is much quickerc. lowers the level of stress for survivorsd. is preferred by most funeral directors93. A bereaved individual who thinks they have seen the deceased at a nearby mall or who thinks the deceased may have moved back to their home town might be regarded as being in which phase of grieving?a. numbingb. yearning and searchingc. disorganization and despaird. reorganization94. Immediately following the death of a loved one, many bereaved individuals are thought to first go through a phase ofa. numbingb. yearning and searchingc. disorganization and despaird. reorganization95. The most frequently found emotion(s) among bereaved individuals is (are)a. anger and guiltb. anxietyc. depressiond. confidence and pride17bb.Psychology of Aging96. The most frequently researched group of bereaved individuals has beena. widowsb. childrenc. parentsd. siblings97. It is expected that in the future older adults may be taking fewer medications than they do today becausea. medicine will become more and more electronicb. links will be discovered among various diseasesc. there wi II be far fewer diseasesd. robots will take the place of grandparents98. A burial site where the body is allowed to decompose naturally without a cas- ket is called a __ cemetery.a. eco-friendlyb. naturalisticc. biodegradabled. green99. A therapy for grieving individuals that involves reading about others who have experienced similar losses is calleda. Reading Therapyb. Literature Therapyc. Bibliotherapyd. Li brary Therapy100. Surveys of bereaved individuals have found that one of the most frequently reported helping behaviors provided by family and friends isa. staying away and allowing the survivor to grieve in peaceb. maintaining close and frequent contact by visiting, phoning, or writingc. sending anonymous gift packages containing food and cleaning suppliesd. making frequent trips to the cemetery to clean the gravesite and provide fresh flowers18

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